If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor. The opening sentence of each paragraph should be your , and the in the paragraph should conclude your point and lead into the next. Where was the source published? Read on for more information and examples. In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation. Swaen also states that universities are increasingly using the generator.
You should therefore be careful in the assumptions that you make in assessing what might be considered common knowledge. However, when quoting, you also need to include the page number s from the original source. Start with parentheses right after the quoted phrase in the sentence. If a list comes from one source, then put the citation after the last list item. This article was co-authored by.
Different authors with the same surname If the surname of two authors is the same, you should include the initials of these authors, even if the publication year is different. For volume plus page, only a colon is needed. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. Most of your , and much of your , involve building upon the research of others, placing your research project in the context of previous findings in the field. Direct quotations are best avoided whenever possible. For each author-date citation in the text, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list under the same name and date. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta.
Include the actual website for those online references that fail to include an author's name. She is a professional screenwriter and young-adult novelist and was awarded the Marion-Hood Boesworth Award for Young Fiction in 2008. They're used to indicate things people have said, or reference something from another piece of writing. Example Common Knowledge: Davidson College was established in 1837 by Presbyterians. In the meantime, you can continue until you feel confident you've mastered these important forms of punctuation.
Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. If you used the citation again omit the year. Common Knowledge Common knowledge is information that a reader can reasonably be expected to know. Otherwise, your paper becomes a book report on that one source and lacks richness of theoretical perspective. Look for the last name of the author of the website you are citing. Write the name of the author in parentheses, along with the year a work was published and the page number you are referencing. To avoid overuse or, worse, misuse, let's lay out all the basics.
Some good guidelines for citing your work are to cite anything that includes actual statistics or figures i. When Not to Use Quotation Marks If you're quoting four or more lines of material in your paper, do not use quotation marks. For example, Sorgheloos, 1967, as cited in Sargeant, 2008 This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research. Publication years appear after the authors for citations in the narrative i. The purpose of parenthetical references is to indicate to readers not only what works you used, but what you used from each source and where in the source you found the material. According to the , there are specific rules for when you should, or shouldn't, be using quotation marks to cite information. Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of all three Canadian prairie provinces.
If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway. Write the author's name before or after the citation within the text. Information can be missing, confusing for the reader or simply different. If the authors are named in the text, they do not have to be used in the citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they're part of the quote, but after the parenthetical citation if they're part of your writing. If neither is available omit page and paragraph numbers.
Typically, this will include author, title of text, date of publication, place of publication, and publisher. There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic structure. The parenthetical reference goes before the punctuation mark. You can then combine the in-text citations and separate them using semicolons. If you are not able to find the primary source, you should cite it through the source that led you to it. Such a long quotation can be difficult to follow if kept within the body of your paper. Sources are cited after each sentence in which they are used rather than just at the beginning or end of a paragraph , even if each sentence uses the same source.