Although lexical ambiguity can cause problems in meanings, it is not difficult to understand the intended meaning of the writer by looking at the context. Q: Did the landlord find the tenant acceptable? Each sentence frame was constructed such that an ambiguous word or a matched control word appeared early in the sentence before any disambiguating context. Additionally, the working memory capacity of individual readers affects their ability to maintain various representations in the process of understanding a sentence. In contrast, in semantic ambiguity the structure remains the same, but the individual words are interpreted differently. In natural language many words, strings of words and sentences are ambiguous, simply because of the fact that numerous words cover several distinct meanings, or specific structural elements give rise to different readings. Even though it appears that these are two very different meanings, both forms go back to the Old English word fot. Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients.
The term structural ambiguity is often contrasted with word-related ambiguity, which often arises because words can have multiple meanings. Significantly enough, structural ambiguities may be created by design when one understands the kinds of syntactic structures that will lead to ambiguity, however for the respective interpretations to work, they must be compatible with semantic and pragmatic contextual factors. Today the pope wire was received with smiles because he it brought such good news. Vagueness Tuggy 1993 offers a classical definition of vagueness. It is noteworthy that both Chan et al. Polysemous words are the result of lexemes gaining new usages over time which share the same phonological form and appear to have separate meanings to non-etymologists.
For example, Jaime's house is near the bank. But the same man will not be considered with the same quality — tall — from the perspective of a 6-foot-tall woman. Lesson Summary Lexical ambiguity is a writing error that can occur when a sentence contains a word that has more than one meaning. Links Online Etymological Dictionary, 23. Thus, transformational ambiguity is a subcategory of grammatical ambiguity. There was no effect of material set on the activation data so the analysis was collapsed across groups. Technology ethics tech ethics is a field of study that seeks to understand and resolve moral issues that surround the.
This is the key difference between lexical and structural ambiguity. Academic Press; New York: 1991. Isolated from any textual relations it is unclear whether God is the subject or the object in this noun phrase. Kimball ed : Syntax and Semantics, Vol. Lexical ambiguity occurs when a word has more than one possible meanings. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
It depends on the liver. Second, the additional activation in right inferior frontal gyrus for the biased ambiguous words when compared to unambiguous sentences suggests either A spillover of processing due to the difficulty that arose in selection of the incorrect meaning or B a right hemisphere-based search of coarse semantic representation; these coarse semantic fields may be present to help resolve secondary meanings associated with biased ambiguous words. Structural Ambiguity The presence of two or more possible meanings for one single sentence or a sequence of words. A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Therefore, the lexeme flying can be interpreted as the gerund form of a verb in a verb phrase, or as an attribute of a noun phrase.
Lexical access during sentence comprehension: Re consideration of context effects. Morphological Theory: An Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Grammar. The Intended Meaning: Lexical Ambiguity: The intended meaning can be understood by the context. How he got in my pajamas I don't know. For example, in the ambiguous sentence 'The old men and women sat on the bench,' the women may or may not be old.
In this type of ambiguity, after one has read or heard the entire sentence, the ambiguity is still present. The teacher said on Friday he would give a test. Let's explore the definition in more detail and look at some examples. The base 300 ms rate was decreased from a base 450 ms rate used in those studies in order to more closely approximate standard reading times. The source of ambiguity is the prepositional phrase, as it could refer to both the girl herself or the teacher. Pun A pun is a special form of ambiguity mostly lexical that is consciously used to create statements with ambiguous — distinct — meanings. Q: Is the fence still standing? Basically, neither categorisation is wrong as many linguists do not distinguish transformational from grammatical ambiguity.
C The ambiguity effect for sentences containing the balanced ambiguous words, only the left inferior frontal region is active. Yesterday the ashes straw seemed wet although he had raked it into the barn early. It is a subcategory of structural ambiguity. . It is not to be confused with amphibiology, the study of. Q: Did the straw seem wet? Still other researchers have suggested that semantic meaning is diffusely represented across the cortex, perhaps on the basis of featural properties ; Goldberg et al. Scope Ambiguity A further type of ambiguity called scope ambiguity is discussed by Chierchia and McConnell-Ginet 1993 , among others.
Sentences that display lexical ambiguity should be revised so that their meaning is clear. B The ambiguity effect for sentences containing the biased ambiguous words. Coarse semantic coding and discourse comprehension. The findings suggest that encountering a lexical ambiguity is dealt with by activating multiple meanings utilizing processes involving both hemispheres. The negative correlation of this activation with reading span suggests that it was more difficult for low spans to access and maintain the multiple meanings than for the high spans. At two equally spaced intervals during the task, the 12 second rest period was extended to 30 seconds for one inter-sentence interval.