Before leaving office on August 13, 1793, he brought about a series of legal and administrative reforms, notably the Cornwallis Code 1793. Given below is the list of important events and the Indian Freedom Struggle Timeline. These included Hindu and Swadesamitran under G. Reporting was closely monitored and comments against govt. Where the security given in respect of any press has been declared forfeited under Section 4-, every person making a fresh declaration in respect of such press under Section 4 of the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 , shall deposit with the Magistrate before whom such declaration is made security to such amount, not being less than one thousand or more then ten thousand rupees, as the Magistrate may think fit to require, in money or the equivalent thereof in securities of the Government of India. The Indian independence movement had come of age during World War I and had gained momentum with the Massacre of Amritsar of 1919. This also led to nation-wide protests.
In ,7 it has been held that the press plays a very significant role in the democratic machinery. Also, it is always good to know about the history of your country in a better way. The Indian Press Act of 1910 revived almost all the features of the Vernacular Press Act. This led to countrywide protests. After Independence : Press Enquiry Committee, 1947: The Committee was set up to examine press laws in the light of fundamental rights formulated by the Constituent Assembly. If after such further security has been deposited the newspaper again contains any words, signs or visible representations which in the opinion of the Local Government are of the nature described in Section 4-, sub-section 1 , the Local Government may, by notice in writing to the publisher of such newspaper, stating or describing such words, signs or visible representations, declare- 1 Where any newspaper, book or other document wherever printed appears to the Local Government to contain any words, signs or visible representations of the nature described in Section 4-, sub-section 1 , the Local Government may, by notification in the local official Gazette, stating the grounds of its opinion, declare such newspaper, book or other document to be forfeited to His Majesty, and there upon any police -officer may seize the same wherever found, and any Magistrate may by warrant authorise any police- officer not below the rank of Sub-Inspector to enter upon and search for the same in any premises where the newspaper, book or other document may be or may be reasonably suspected to be. We do not consider it necessary that postal officers should have this power.
Even the customs officers and officers of post offices were given powers to detain any packet or parcel or consignment suspected to certain objectionable matter and deliver the same to the provincial gov. In April 2009, Union Home Minister P. If after such further security has been deposited the printing-press is again used for the purpose of printing or publishing any newspaper, book or other document containing any words, signs, or visible representations which in the opinion of the Local Government are of the nature prescribed in Section 4-, sub-section 1 , the Local Government may, by notice in writing to the keeper of such printing-press, stating or describing such words, signs or visible representations, declare- Where any printing -press is or any copies of any newspaper, book or other document are declared forfeited to his Majesty under this Act, the Local Government may direct any Magistrate to issue a warrant empowering any police-officer, not below the rank of a Sub-Inspector, to seize and detain any property ordered to be forfeited and to enter upon and search for such property in any premises- 1 Every publisher of a newspaper who is required to make a declaration under Section 5 of the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867, shall, at the time of making the same, deposit with the Magistrate before whom the declaration is made security to such an account, not being less than five hundred or more than two thousand rupees, as the Magistrate may in each case think fit to require, in money or the equivalent thereof in securities of the Government of India : Provided that if the person registered under the said Act as printer of the newspaper is also registered as the keeper of the press where the newspaper is printed, the publisher shall not be required to deposit security so long as such registration is in force : Provided further that the Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, for special reasons to be recorded by him, dispense with the deposit of any security or may from time to time cancel or vary any order under this sub-section. We have therefore modified this clause by providing that such officers should have power only to detain articles after than letters or parcels and deliver them to such officer as the Local Government may appoint in this behalf to be disposed of in such manner as the Local Government direct. The advocates of Indian high Courts of less than 10 years standing were eligible to be appointed as Law Minister in the Council. Tilak had been building up anti-imperialist sentiments among the public through Ganapati festivals started in 1893 , Shivaji festivals started in 1896 and through his newspapers Kesari and Maharatta.
Because of security deposits, more than 130 newspapers had not started. Reversing some policies of his predecessor, he ended the Second Afghan War by recognizing ʿAbdor Raḥmān Khan as emir of Afghanistan and by evacuating the Indo-British expeditionary forces from that country in 1881. The Dyarchy was for the Provincial Governments. These journals usually aimed to cater to the intellectual entertainment of the Europeans and the Anglo Indians. The Gagging Act of India snapshot , Lyttelton. This was a very useful experience.
During And After the First World War : Defence of India Rules was imposed for repression of political agitation and free public criticism during the First World War. Almost 350 printing press were penalized and securities of 40,000 pounds were demanded from newspapers. Through the newspapers, a nationalistic rebellion was slowly being pieced together through words and symbols. As did several other Indian editors of regional papers across the country. In these newspapers, government acts and policies were put to critical scrutiny. Under section 26 of the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, the Electrical Inspector also takes-up the dispute cases regarding correctness of the energy meter between the consumer and supplier on application by either party.
The local government was authorized to terminate any declaration made by the printer and publisher of the newspaper, which had been found offender under the Press and Registration of Books Act of 1867. Licensing Act, 1857: Due to the emergency caused by the 1857 revolt, this Act imposed licensing restrictions in addition to the already existing registration procedure laid down by Metcalfe Act and the Government reserved the right to stop publication and circulation of any book, newspaper or printed matter. Simultaneously several other editors in Bombay presidency were tried and given similar harsh sentences. The Secretary of State, after careful consideration of the recent debate in the Governor-General's Legislative Council, holds that the powers of appeal provided in the Act may suffice to supply a remedy against arbitrary administration. Dafa 302 was also the name of a Bollywood movie released in 1975.
However, inspite of all these restrictions, the Indian Press emerged successfully in playing the role of an effective weapon in the nationalist struggle. It imposed the Defence of India Regulations on the Press, prohibiting it from announcing to the masses that the press had been banned from writing on the Bengal famine or the sorry state of affairs in India. RajaRam Mohan Roy and Dwarkanath Tagore protested the new regulations that were placed before the supreme court in March 1823 came into force on 15 th April 1823. The decision of the Magistrate was made final, and no appeal could be made in the court of law. The declaration of forfeiture operates to annul the declaration made under the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867. By Around the year 1910, the Cow Protection movement led to the imposition of the Press Act of 1910 by the British administration.
After 1858, the European press always rallied behind the Government in political controversies while the vernacular press was critical of the Government. In 1896-97 he initiated a no-tax campaign in Maharashtra, urging farmers to withhold the payment of revenue if their crop had failed. If the High Court finds that it is not of that description, it must cancel the order of forfeiture. This was one of the most condemnable act which showed the ugly side of the press. In 1941, Gandhi wrote against the restrictions imposed.
Indian Press Emergency Powers Act, 1931: This Act gave sweeping powers to provincial governments to suppress propaganda for Civil Disobedience Movement. Similarly, was the name of a 1955 Bollywood movie starring Raj Kapoor. Any Indian publisher may be called upon by the district magistrate to enter into a bond undertaking that the published articles would not cause any disaffection to the government. In other words, the subjects which were considered of key importance for the welfare of the masses and for maintaining peace and order in the state were classified as reserved, while subjects in which there was more local interest were treated as transferred. It lashed out at the Indian Press — even though the Indian Press Emergency powers Act, 1931 was already in place, the government demanded stiff censorship. Certain images and elements within an image were considered inflammatory for steady British governance were proscribed. Press Committee, 1921 In 1921, on the recommendations of a Press Committee chaired by Tej Bahadur Sapru, the Press Acts of 1908 and 1910 were repealed.
There was hardly any danger of public opinion being subverted in India. The Newspaper Act, of 1908 laid down several principles, terms and condition. This section was unanimously struck down on 27th September 2018 by a five judge bench of the Supreme Court as being unconstitutional and demeaning to the dignity of women. The third edition of this landmark work adds forty new documents, which cover the significant developments in American Indian affairs since 1988. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. The fourth object of the Bill is attained by authorizing the Local Government to declare forfeit any newspaper, book or other document which appears to it to contain matter of the prohibited description, and upon such a declaration the Bill empowers the police to seize such articles and to search for the same.