In their eagerness to be reconciled to thelatter, the Koreish who had resumed the scepter earlier, nowbestowed it upon them. Jafar Tayyar who was killed in the battle of Mootah was his elderbrother. This was received gratefully by Jews and Christians, who had been persecuted under the Byzantines. The names of the first four caliphs inscribed at the dome of in ,. In July 660, Mu'awiya declared himself caliph in Jerusalem.
The second Caliph was named Umar, another father-in-law of Muhammed. Some years later he married theProphet's second daughter, Ruqayya. However, the confusion did not end with Abu Bakr's accession. He passed away from the wound. The arbitration solved nothing, but it did serve to delegitimize Ali in the eyes of some of his supporters, who deserted Ali's army and withdrew to Nahrawan, east of the Tigris. It may seem surprising that a ruler of such vast territories, whosearmies were matchless, was unable to deal with these rebels. Two of Muhammad's daughters and was married to him one after another.
Why is he still remembered today by so many Muslims around the world? He is considered by many to be the first male convert to Islam. He was assassinated while praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa. During the caliphate, the Muslims repaired many of the aging wells in the lands they conquered. He was the best of all judges, and he was the mosteloquent orator of the Arabs. Honesty, piety, justice and love of truth were the main marks of his character. His caliphate coincided with the civil war when Muslims were divided over who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate. During the conquest of Egypt the area of was used by the Muslim army as a base.
The episode ended in a treatywith the Meccans known as the Treaty of Hudaibiya. Council decision or caliph's choice determined the successor originally. This attracted especially the People of the Book, Christians and Jews, who had until recently been under the suppressive reign of the Byzantines. The ʿAbbāsid caliphate The ʿAbbāsids, descendants of an uncle of Muhammad, owed the success of their revolt in large part to their appeal to various pietistic, extremist, or merely disgruntled groups and in particular to the aid of the , who held that the caliphate belonged by right to the descendants of ʿAlī. The four caliphs were more political figures than spiritual leaders. The illness Ruqayya proved fatal,leaving Uthman deeply grieved. Both in Makkah and Medina, Muhammad Mustafa declared that Ali washis brother in this world and in the Hereafter.
Sayyiduna Ali radi Allahu anhu's first task was to rid Madinatul Munawwarah of the rebels and to return the situation to normal. After a while, the country was divided into administrative units. He succeeded Abu Bakr on 23 August 634 as the second caliph, and played a significant role in Islam. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu was quick to take action against these imposters. Muslim fought Muslim over who would next assume leadership.
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu then turned his attention to the Romans who were causing trouble in the North-West frontier. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 1st Class Arlo K. Sayyiduna Muaawiyah radi Allahu anhu was no match for Sayyiduna Ali radi Allahu anhu and began to retreat. After Muhammad's death, however, some of Muhammad's companions left and gathered at a place known as. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu now sent Sayyiduna Usamah radi Allahu anhu on the expedition to Syria to fight the Romans, even though he had to attend to all the internal problems of the Islamic State. He declared a jihad against the Byzantine Christians, but died before he was able to carry it out.
Ali ibn Abi Talib The fourth caliph was Ali ibn Abi Talib. Shia tradition According to Shia Islam, the first caliph should have been Ali followed by the Shia Imams. In 636 the Muslims defeated the Persians at Qadisiyya in a battle which proved to be decisive. While some canals were excluded for the use of monks such as a spring purchased by , and the needy, most canals were open to general public use. Many canals were purchased, and new ones constructed. He was the second companion of Muhammad after Khadijah to accept Islam. Ali's father, Abu Talib, was the Defender of Islam, and he was theProtector and Guardian of Muhammad.
Muhammad, of course,did not want any help from Abu Bakr or from anyone else, but at onetime in Makkah, his clan, the Banu Hashim, was in a state of siegefor three years, and was in great distress. Strange, Hannah 5 July 2014. The Emperor of Iran, Khusrou Parvez, was killed by his son, Shirooya, and the whole empire fell into chaos and disorder. When Muhammad saas fell ill, he appointed Abu Bakr ra as imam, or leader. Proper weights and measures introduced.
Among his conquests are Jerusalem, Damascus, and Egypt. ʿAbd al-Malik is also remembered for building the in. After Abu Bakr rar died, Umar was chosen as caliph and proved to be a model of the administration of justice for those who came after him. This work was undertaken due to the vast expansion of Islam under Uthman's rule, which encountered many different dialects and languages. Although his reign was just 10 years, Umar oversaw the complete annihilation of the Sassanid Empire, expanding the caliphate from Persia to halfway across North Africa.