These specialists will attend to the work which is common to different functions of various departments. Some good examples of specialists who have been given functional authority in some organizations are in the areas of quality control, safety and labor relations. Staff managers are placed in charge of vital issues that are best handled by a single, highly specialized individual, or in which a formal chain of command would simply hinder productivity and efficiency. Lack of co-ordination: In reality it is very difficult to achieve proper coordination among various departments operating in an organisation. Workers, under functional organisation, receive instructions from various specialists. The personnel in Line organization are directly involved in achieving the objectives of the organization. Each department is headed by a line officer who exercises full authority regarding the planning.
For example, a company may engage a lawyer for rendering legal advice on different legal matters. From the view point of Staff Personnel, conflict is created because line personnel do not make proper use of staff personnel, resist new ideas and refuse to give staff personnel enough authority to do their jobs. Staff organization is a specialized organization. Typically, work is carried out in accordance with specialized functions, and authority is exercised in a hierarchical manner. Common types of functional authority for staff positions include authority over recruiting standards, reimbursement policies and quality standards. Decision Efficiency Staff managers generally perform their job functions without managerial guidance or approval, allowing them to work much more efficiently than line employees. These specialists are basically selected on the basis of task related skills and technical expertise rather than decision-making experience or planning ability.
These specialists go back to their respective duties as soon as the project is completed. Line organization has grown because of the eve increasing role of staff people. He undertakes proper supervision over speed of machines. It, therefore, becomes apparent from the scalar principle that line authority is that relationship in which a superior exercise direct supervision over a subordinate authority relationship being in direct line or steps. This considerably reduces the burden of work and makes possible for the foreman to carry out the work in the best possible manner. In the words of J.
Fixed responsibility: Duties and responsibilities are clearly defined for each individual with reference to the work assigned to him. It is a rigid and inflexible form of organization. Since the line are performed, with the advise provided by the staff, if things go right then the staff takes the credit and if things go wrong then the line get the blame for it. In fact, he is the guardian of orderliness in the factory. Line Organization is the form of organization, wherein the authority flows from the person present at the top of the organizational hierarchy to the person working at the lowest level. It leads to conflict and confusion in the minds of the workers to whom they should obey and whom they should ignore. Matrix organizational design is most useful when there is pressure for shared resources.
Likewise, the subordinates, inturn, communicate the orders to the workers under them. When advice and guidance prove wrong and the actions of the department affect the entire business, line managers are most often held accountable. The scope of the work is kept limited but the area of authority is left unlimited. He has to perform a limited number of functions. The principle of line-staff organization introduces flexibility into hierarchical lines of authority while trying to preserve a unified command structure.
Although line and staff may operate at different levels of an organization, all positions are defined relative to their line or staff function. Adequate organisation a balance among the various activities can be attained easily. Divisional Organization The divisional or departmental organization involves grouping of people or activities with similar characteristics into a single department or unit. Since the specialists from different departments is drawn to work together under the project organisation it helps to coordination. Small and medium size organisations cannot afford such a system.
Advisory Capacity: Its purpose is to render specialised advice and assistance to management while needed. The success of an enterprise depends on how the line and staff organizations work with close cooperation and confidence. An escape clause for staff specialists Staff specialists only propose a plan; others must make the decision to adopt the plan and put it into operation. A certified public accountant and certified financial manager, Codjia received a Master of Business Administration from Rutgers University, majoring in investment analysis and financial management. Merits of the Line and Staff Organisation: 1. It can be easily understood by the employees.
A line-and-staff approach contradicts a one-for-all, team culture. Most medium and large-sized firms exhibit line-and-staff organizational structures. A typical case would be a change in the organisation structure of the company as a whole: the combination of two departments under a single head, for example or the organisation of a new top-level department. Line personnel can do their part to minimize line staff conflict by sing staff personnel wherever possible, making proper use of the staff abilities, and keeping staff personnel appropriately informed. It overloads the executive with pressing activities so that long-range planning and policy formulation are often neglected. . Control Capacity: This includes quality control staff that may have the authority to control the quality and enforce standards.
Responsibility is fixed and unified at each level and authority and accountability are clear-cut, hence each individual knows to whom he is responsible and who is or in truth responsible to him. It reduces the opportunities for the training of all-round executives to assume further leadership in the firm. The line organization can be a pure line type or departmental line type. About the Author Based in Green Bay, Wisc. Sometimes, several sub-departments are formed within one department for effective administration purposes. It helps the line organization in the effective and efficient performance of business.