Orthographically the possessive -s is separated from the noun root with an apostrophe. A deictic pronoun points to some person or object by identifying it relative to the speech situation—for example, the pronoun I identifies the speaker, and the pronoun you, the addressee. African American English: a linguistic introduction. The increasing commercial and economic power of countries like India, for instance, might mean that Indian English will one day begin to have an impact beyond its own borders. Middle English is often arbitrarily defined as beginning with the by in 1066, but it developed further in the period from 1200—1450.
One way of doing this is through a passive construction, the girl was stung by the bee. Spanish is the , after. Volume 1: An Introduction pp. We want to hear what you think about this article. By the 21st century, English was more widely spoken and written than any language has ever been. It is closely related to the , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other , particularly a , and to a greater extent and.
There are words which appear on the surface to mean exactly the same thing but which, in fact, have slightly different shades of meaning and must be chosen appropriately if a speaker wants to convey precisely the message intended. It would behoove us to make learning English as easy as possible, for both children and adults, in this country and abroad. That pervasive use of English leads to a conclusion in many places that English is an especially suitable language for expressing new ideas or describing new technologies. Suppose that nationwide, English lessons were available free as they already are in some parts of the country and that employers offered workers, and schools offered parents, incentives to take them. English is, after the Chinese one, the language most people speak and it is the most popular second language and foreign language pupils learn in school. David Graddol's neat little boxes glossed over myriad difficulties inherent in each step of linguistic interchangeability. In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M.
English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. Through all types of printed and electronic media, and spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global , English has become the of international discourse and in many regions and professional contexts such as , and. Making primary school teachers more aware of the primacy of morpheme representation in English may help learners learn more efficiently to read and write English. Each of these areas are home both to a local variety of English and a local English based creole, combining English and African languages. Varieties of English learned by speakers who are not native speakers born to English-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners.
English distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, determiners including articles , prepositions, and conjunctions. Discourse level syntax While English is a subject-prominent language, at the discourse level it tends to use a structure, where the known information topic precedes the new information comment. But the vast numbers that are often repeated -- a billion English-speakers, a billion and a half -- have only tenuous grounding in reality. They are used to describe movement, place, and other relations between different entities, but they also have many syntactic uses such as introducing complement clauses and oblique arguments of verbs. Where else is English… English has been the dominant global language since the nineteenth century.
The colonisation process in these countries varied. But some contemporary grammars such as that of :598—600 no longer consider government of case to be the defining feature of the class of prepositions, rather defining prepositions as words that can function as the heads of prepositional phrases. Advertisement Though it still sounds like science fiction, it seems likely that some time, many decades from now, a machine will be perfected that can produce Urdu when it hears someone speaking German. Russian is the largest in Europe, the most geographically widespread language in , one of the of the , one of two official languages aboard the and the second most widespread language on the after. It remains an important second language in much of , and in the international scientific community. As a result of British imperialism, the language was spread to every region of the world.
A more difficult problem is that of raising the awareness of native speakers. Throughout this time one of the most significant events in the history of world languages was happening: English-speaking soldiers, sailors and colonisers were travelling to, and settling in countries right the way across the globe. . To communicate on a day-to-day basis -- to order a meal, to book a room -- there's no language as simple as English. Are they learning English as it spoken in Britain? English is used as the language for wider communication in countries around the world.
However, when combining native and non-native speakers it may, depending on the estimate used, be the most commonly spoken language in the world. No matter how much English-language material there is on the Web, then, or even how much more English material there is than material in other languages, it is naive to assume that home computers around the world will, in effect, become the work stations of a vast English language lab. The need for an international language has always existed. If learning a second language were so simple, no doubt many more of us would have picked up Spanish or Chinese by now. Archived from on 2 April 2015. Australia and New Zealand An example of a male with a. By some estimates, the English lexicon is currently increasing by over 8,500 words a year, although other estimates put this as high as 15,000 to 20,000.
In North America, a number of chain shifts such as the and have produced very different vowel landscapes in some regional accents. Most of those varieties of English include words little used by native speakers of English in the inner-circle countries, and they may have grammatical and phonological differences from inner-circle varieties as well. Language Rights Revisited: The challenge of global migration and communication. Anaphorical pronouns such as that refer back to an entity already mentioned or assumed by the speaker to be known by the audience, for example in the sentence I already told you that. Some words, primarily short function words but also some modal verbs such as can, have depending on whether they occur in stressed or non-stressed position within a sentence. Some dialects have introduced innovative 2nd person plural pronouns such as y'all found in and or youse and ye found in Irish English. The countries in which English is spoken can be grouped into different categories by how English is used in each country.
Those for employees learning Swahili, Indonesian, or Malay last thirty-six weeks, and for people learning languages including Hindi, Urdu, Russian, and Hungarian, forty-four weeks. In some cases older forms were retained — the way most Americans pronounce the sound after a vowel in words like star t, no rth, nu rse and lette r is probably very similar to pronunciation in 17th century England. Stress, rhythm and intonation See also: and plays an important role in English. French words from various periods of the development of French now make up one-third of the vocabulary of English. Specialised subsets of English arise spontaneously in international communities, for example, among international business people, as an. As ever more local and national communities use English, though, they will pull language in ever more directions. They have many more speakers of English who acquire English in the process of growing up through day by day use and listening to broadcasting, especially if they attend schools where English is the medium of instruction.