Calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece. Lecture 2 2019-02-01

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5.2.4.2 Cold Forging Processes

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

Figure 5-19 shows three types of backward extrusion. Figure 5-18 shows three types of forward extrusion. As the four steps of the process — casting, transfer from mold to the forging die, forging, and trimming are in most applications completely mechanized, the process has acquired the name Auto — forging. The workpiece is formed either in the cavity formed between the punch and die, or in the cavity of the punch. The force is applied to the bottom of the preform by a relatively long punch.

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Solved: Calculate The Forging Force At The End Of Stroke F...

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

Nosing Nosing is used to reduce the end of a backward extrusion, or its radius. Combined Processes Many of the above processes can be combined to advantage in a single operation. The workpiece is formed either in the cavity formed between the punch and die, or in the cavity of the punch. Two types of lateral extrusion are shown in Figure 5-20. Seven common process combinations are shown in Figure 5-25. Hollow shapes, including rounds, polygons and splines are also forward extruded.

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A solid cylindrical stainless steel workpiece of 200 mm diameter and 150 mm height. This component is

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

The process sequence for the bevel gear in the figure shows the progress in cold forming technology in recent years to produce very intricate shapes. In order to produce fine details on the work material the pressures required are as large as five or six times the strength of the material. Headed shapes include T- and L-heads, ball heads, square heads and socket heads. Typical forged parts include rivets, bolts, crane hooks, connecting rods, gears, turbine shafts, hand tools, railroads, and a variety of structural components used to manufacture machinery. Upsetting In this process, material flows lateral to the direction of the punch in all directions, increasing the cross section of the stock. The material flows in the same direction as the punch to provide various types of exit sections. Upset Forging Upset forging involves increasing the cross — section of a material at the expense of its corresponding length.

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EGR 432

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

The force is applied to the bottom of the preform by a relatively long punch. The bar is then inserted between the next set of smaller grooves and the process is repeated till the desired shape and size are achieved. The split dies are then forced together to grip the and a heading tool or ram advances axially against the bar, upsetting it to completely fill the die cavity. When designing parts for upset — forging, the following three rules must be followed. Nosing Nosing is used to reduce the end of a backward extrusion, or its radius.


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Solved: Calculate The Forging Force At The End Of Stroke F...

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

Lubricants are not employed in this process because they can get entrapped in the die cavities and, being incompressible, prevent the full reproduction of fine details of the die. Let the coefficient of friction be 0. The number of strokes is determined by the formability of the alloy, die loading, press loading, press characteristics, and the opportunity to combine processes. Figure 5-18 shows three types of forward extrusion. The forces required for forging are high.

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A solid cylindrical stainless steel workpiece of 200 mm diameter and 150 mm height. This component is

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

Hollow parts, such as gun barrels, can be axially forged using a mandrel. Hollow parts, such as gun barrels, can be axially forged using a mandrel. Net - shape Forging Precession Forging Modern trend in forging operation is toward economy and greater precision. If the formability limit is reached, the workpiece must be annealed in an intermediate stage before proceeding with the next operation. The flash formed during die forging is trimmed later in the usual manner. Process sequences for two cold forgings are shown in Figures 5-26 and 5-27. The heated metal is positioned in the lower cavity and on it one or more blows are struck by the upper die.

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A solid cylindrical stainless steel workpiece of 200 mm diameter and 150 mm height. This component is

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

The design of process sequence is therefore based on many years of experience by the process design engineer. Side Extrusion In this process, the material flows lateral to the direction of the punch, generally in one direction. Press forgings generally need smaller draft than drop forgings and have greater dimensional accuracy. Three types of upsetting operations are shown in Figure 5-21. Ironing In this process, the wall thickness of hollow cans or tubes is reduced, as shown in Figure 5-22. The process is shown in Figure 5-23. Radial forging can also be used to make solid parts, such as axles.

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EGR 432

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

In open die forging operation, the forging force F, to be applied on a solid cylindrical component can be determined from the relation. A variety of forging processes have been developed that can be used for either producing a single piece or mass — produce hundreds of identical parts. Upset — forging was initially developed for making bolt heads in a continuous manner, but presently it is the most widely used of all forging processes. The application of surface coatings between processes may be necessary for some materials. Process Sequence In almost all cases, cold forgings are made in several forming strokes. It is used to produce solid shapes such as rounds, thread blanks, squares, rectangles, triangles, polygons and splines. Upsetting In this process, material flows lateral to the direction of the punch in all directions, increasing the cross section of the stock.

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MAE 364 Test 2

calculate the forging force for a solid cylindrical workpiece

. Dies are generally heated during press forging to reduce heat loss, promote more uniform metal flow and production of finer details. Ironing In this process, the wall thickness of hollow cans or tubes is reduced, as shown in Figure 5-22. The number of strokes is determined by the formability of the alloy, die loading, press loading, press characteristics, and the opportunity to combine processes. If the formability limit is reached, the workpiece must be annealed in an intermediate stage before proceeding with the next operation. The process is shown in Figure 5-23.

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