Min 250 words © BrainMass Inc. Just let me know via the feedback section if you need further clarification. If we ask why this is so, the only answer appears to be that the terms are synonymous. We cannot tell by observing the form of a response whether it belongs to this class Skinner is very clear about this , but only by identifying the controlling variables. Skinner who lived from 1904-1990 , argued that language acquisition and development are learned behaviors.
Anyone who seriously approaches the study of linguistic behavior, whether linguist, psychologist, or philosopher, must quickly become aware of the enormous difficulty of stating a problem which will define the area of his investigations, and which will not be either completely trivial or hopelessly beyond the range of present-day understanding and technique. The same sort of thing could be said for the ingenious phlogiston or ether theorist. As long as we are speculating, we may consider the possibility that the brain has evolved to the point where, given an input of observed Chinese sentences, it produces by an induction of apparently fantastic complexity and suddenness the rules of Chinese grammar, and given an input of observed English sentences, it produces by, perhaps, exactly the same process of induction the rules of English grammar; or that given an observed application of a term to certain instances, it automatically predicts the extension to a class of complexly related instances. The voluntary behavior at this stage is therefore highly improved with the child being able to associate with specific aspects and people. None of these are provided with any reward.
Lashley has implicitly delimited a class of problems which can be approached in a fruitful way by the linguist and psychologist, and which are clearly preliminary to those with which Skinner is concerned. Environmental Influences on Language Acquisition A major proponent of the idea that language depends largely on environment was the behaviorist B. As indicated earlier, the efforts should be based on the basis of the immediate environment and more reinforcement emphasized for faster development. Such a discussion would, perhaps, have helped to place the specific critique of Skinner in a more meaningful context. In general, nouns are evoked by objects, verbs by actions, and so on. The results of such a study might, as Lashley suggests, be of independent interest for psychology and neurology and conversely. Skinner is content with what he calls an extrapolation of the concept of operant developed in the laboratory to the verbal field.
We identify the stimulus when we hear the response. All can then be taken as equivalent to always, or always it is possible to say. The pointlessness of these claims becomes clear when we consider the well-known difficulties in determining to what extent inborn structure, maturation, and learning are responsible for the particular form of a skilled or complex performance. If a speaker has had a history of appropriate reinforcement e. The experimental arrangement that he introduced consists basically of a box with a bar attached to one wall in such a way that when the bar is pressed, a food pellet is dropped into a tray and the bar press is recorded. If we accept the narrower definitions, then behavior is lawful by definition if it consists of responses ; but this fact is of limited significance, since most of what the animal does will simply not be considered behavior. In fairness, it must be mentioned that there are certain nontrivial applications of operant conditioning to the control of human behavior.
Death does not trouble me. Theories of Language Acquisition Behaviorists, like B. Every time an adult reads a newspaper, he undoubtedly comes upon countless new sentences which are not at all similar, in a simple, physical sense, to any that he has heard before, and which he will recognize as sentences and understand; he will also be able to detect slight distortions or misprints. It is suggested that children are sensitive to patterns in language which enables the acquisition process. However, skinner theories do not address clearly how deprivation is related to reinforcement in the child language development especially for the children with language learning disabilities. Even more, children often have a hard time imitating the complex sounds of their parents in the first place. Chomsky said that the speed of which children acquire language is too rapid and too remarkable for it to possibly be explained by reinforcement, he said that if children acquired language through reinforcement it would take much longer than 2 years for children to understand the basic structures of their first language 4.
Skinner could only say that each of these responses is under the control of some other stimulus property of the physical object. The word question does not cover commands. Language Acquisition: Contrasting theoretical approaches. I think that this analysis supports the view expressed in Section I, that elimination of the independent contribution of the speaker and learner a result which Skinner considers of great importance, cf. They begin to speak in simple words, like 'dog' or 'up.
Notice, however, that the modified sentence Swans are white is just as general as All swans are white. This characterization can be given substance by defining drives in some way independently of what in fact is learned. Struggling artists can be a nuisance has the same frame as marking papers can be a nuisance, but is quite different in sentence structure, as can be seen by replacing can be by is or are in both cases. Conclusion However, finding a solid answer to the problem of language acquisition is far from being over. Operants are emitted responses, for which no obvious stimulus can be discovered. Also, it helps them to communicate, interact and associate with others in the society and therefore meet the need of the required cultural customs of the regions they live in. Elsewhere it is asserted that a stimulus controls a response in the sense that presence of the stimulus increases the probability of the response.
As in the case of most aspects of human behavior, the evidence about secondary reinforcement is so fragmentary, conflicting, and complex that almost any view can find some support. Skinner's theory of language acquisition and his use of operant conditioning to explain how the process occurs has led to very practical real world applications, such as in the classroom or in the workplace 6. Impact on grammar construction - 100 words 3. Questions of this sort pose something of a dilemma for the experimental psychologist. While these theories are similar in some ways, they also have key differences, such as the fact that Piaget thought children developed through stages, whereas Vygotsky stressed a more… 3331 Words 14 Pages The linguistic theory of Chomsky has changed the long, traditional way of studying language. Introduction to Psycholinguists: Understanding Language Science. If we look at a red chair and say red, the response is under the control of the stimulus redness; if we say chair, it is under the control of the collection of properties for Skinner, the object chairness 110 , and similarly for any other response.